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0 HAKI JAMU MADURA


PERMODELAN PENYULUHAN  DALAM RANGKA PEMBUDAYAAN DAN PELESTARIAN HAK INDIKASI GEOGRAFIS BUDAYA TRADISIONAL JAMU MADURA  (Muh Fakhry, Gatot Poernomo, Andrie Kisroh Sunyigono, 2007)


Indonesia dianugerahi kekayaan keanekaragaman hayati dengan memiliki lebih dari 30.000 spesies tanaman dan  940 spesies di antaranya diketahui berkhasiat sebagai obat (Puslitbangtri, 1992).  Namun kekayaaan tradisional tersebut banyak dimanfaatkan oleh Industri jamu skala besar. Pemanfaatan pengetahuan tradisional di bidang obat-obatan di Indonesia oleh industri jamu mencapai sekitar Rp 3 triliun. Bukan itu saja, bahkan menurut Agus mengutip website European Patent Office, sebanyak 37 genetic resources dan traditional knowledge Indonesia telah dipatenkan oleh perusahaan farmasi dan kosmetika Jepang di Eropa.
Di dalam negeri sendiri,  industri jamu tradisional mengalami berbagai kendala. Jamu dan kothekaan Madura sebagai salah satu karya intelektual tradisional Nusantara yang terkenal kesegala penjuru dunia. terancam dengan adanya tuntutan sertifikasi HAKI. Padahal tuntutan tersebut sulit dipenuhi mengingat rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat akan pentingya perlindungan terhadap kekayaan intelektual.
Terdapat tiga metode yang digunakan, yakni : (1) Pertanyaan terstruktur (quesioner) (2) Tehnik Participatory Rural Apraisal dan (3) Tehnik Participatory Etnocultural Apraisal.
Kesimpulan penelitian tahun-1 adalah: (a) Masyarakat dilokasi penelitian (Desa Bragung, Dundang, Katawang Laok, Penanggungan dan Guluk-Guluk) telah mempunyai kesadaran untuk melestarikan tanaman obat keluarga (dimulai tahun 2001). Namun belum mengarah ke upaya mendapatkan hak indikasi geografis, (b) Kesadaran masyarakat  akan manfaat dari tanaman obat keluarga cukup tinggi dan hingga saat ini mereka masih menggunakan kemampuan tersebut untuk melakukan tindakan prefentif dan kuratif baik untuk keluarganya sendiri maupun untuk orang lain, (c) Model penyuluhan yang sesuai dalam pelestarian budaya tradisional jamu madura adalah partisipatif dengan melibatkan kontak swadaya yang berasal dari pengurus/anggota KSM yang sudah ada dan mempunyai pengetahuan lebih baik.
Saran penelitian ini adalah: (a) Perlu adanya kelembagaan yang kuat (kelompok swadaya masyarakat) sebagai wadah untuk menuju tercapainya Hak Indikasi Geografis (IG), (b) Tahapan dalam model penyuluhan harus jelas, rinci dan mudah dilaksanakan oleh masyarakat secara mandiri dan (c) Fasilitasi dari pihak luar sangat diperlukan untuk menstimulus tumbuhnya IG Jamu Madura



(Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Trunojoyo Bangkalan - Madura)



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0 Government Intervention


                                     



Government Intervention in Agricultural Market

Some of the policies, strategies, programs and projects of development have been conducted by government for improving of farmer welfare, in order to become an economic agents that is able to compete in market. Government must conduct intervention because the farmers are the marginal society.
Based on Stiglitz (1988), the government paid more attention to the one group of society because of market failure. The market failure is defined as the emergence of the development problems due to lack of fulfillment of the development assumptions. These assumptions are: similarity information and the ability and accessibility to the economic resources. In this context, the government’s attention to the farmers especially rice farmers has objective to correct market failure that caused immersed farmers fate.
This paper describes various government interventions especially in agricultural sector in Indonesia. The reasons for choosing agricultural sector are:
1)       Contribution of agricultural sector in the Gross Domestic Product formation is very large
2)       The most of people work as farmers.
3)       The government’s intervention to the agricultural sector is very large especially to fulfill basic need of the society.
The orders of discussion of this paper are:
1)       The beginning of the papers will explain about the background of the government decide the kind of intervention that will be implemented
2)       Describing of the economic theory what support to the intervention that will be implemented
3)       The last, Describing of the critical analysis toward government intervention accompanied the relevant case study
4)       The Conclusion

I.                    The Background in selecting of the Government intervention
Government intervention in the economic sector closely related with government expenditure. Because there are some economic sectors can be affected by the amount of government expenditure. i.e.: 1) Production sector, 2) Distribution sector, 3) Consumption sector and 4) Economic equilibrium sector.
Government intervention in the economic sector closely related with government expenditure. Because there are some economic sectors can be affected by the amount of government expenditure. i.e.: 1) Production sector, 2) Distribution sector, 3) Consumption sector and 4) Economic equilibrium sector.

Therefore, the analysis to the government expenditure must be done to measure efficiency level and equity from policy that has been done. The analysis to the policy of the government expenditure can be done through 10 step activities, i.e.:
-          The need for the government expenditure program
-          Market failure that occurred on the government expenditure program
-          The alternatives of the government intervention through government expenditure program
-          The design of the special feature from government expenditure program
-          The response from the private sector
-          Consequence of the efficiency
-          Trade of efficiency and equity
-          The aim of the public policy
-          Political process

If from analytical result known that occurring market failure. The government should be looking for alternatives policy to  overcome the market failure with attention to the impact from each policy.

The Alternatives of Government intervention are:
     If produced by government, the alternatives of policies are:
      Free distribution
      Distribution with the lower price from production price
      Distribution with the price equal to production price
     If produced by private, the alternatives of policies are:
      Government subsidies for producer
      Government subsidies for consumer
      Direct distribution from government
      Government rules




II.                  The Economic Theory that relevant with government intervention
A.      Producer Subsidies
The aim of a producer subsidy is to increase the domestic production of a good.


By governments giving a certain amount of money for each unit of good produced to the producers the domestic supply curve makes a shift to the right from S1 to S2. The vertical difference between the two supply curves represents the amount of the subsidy per unit.
The model predicts that the amount of the good offered for sale will increase from Q1 to Q2 and the price will fall from P1 to P2.
The concepts of consumer and producer surplus can be used to examine the impact of the producer subsidy on overall welfare. The fall in the price suggests that the consumers are going to benefit. Consumer surplus is a measure of welfare gained by consumers being able to purchase a good or service in the market place at a price lower that the maximum that they would be prepared to pay for it rather than going with out it. In the diagram below, it is shown by the triangle above the equilibrium price (Anonymous, 2009)


Inspection of the subsidy diagram above shows that the consumer surplus has increased as a result of the price falling following of the granting of the subsidy.
There will also be a benefit to producers from a lowering of their costs as a result of the subsidy. This results in an increase in producer surplus. The producer surplus is shown in the diagram below by the triangle below the equilibrium price. The producer surplus arises because the producer sells the good for more than they would be willing to. Once the subsidy has been given, this producer surplus increases.

Producer surplus
The overall welfare gain is shown by the sum of the consumer and producer surplus.





B.      Production quota system
A production quota system is an agreement by producers to limit the amount supplied to the market place. By forming a cartel and co-operating together, the producers attempt to influence the market supply and hence the price. The individual members of the cartel are then given a quota on the amount they are able to produce. If the intention is to prevent the price falling the cartel members will be instructed to reduce their quotas (Anonymous, 2009).



If the market price for the commodity was P1 and the cartel wanted to raise the market price to a target price of P2 then by reducing the quotas produced by each one of the members of the cartel the market supply curve can be shifted to the left and the market price raised.

C.     Buffer stock system
This system is operated by a group of producers, known as the buffer stock authority, often with government support setting a target price or a target price band i.e. a price ceiling and price floor. If the market conditions are such that a surplus is produced, which would cause the price to fall below the target price, the buffer stock authority will agree to purchase the surplus at the intervention price. If market conditions have produced a shortage then the buffer stock authority will prevent the price from rising above the target price by selling off previously acquired stocks (assuming they exist). (Anonymous, 2009).

In the diagram above shifts in the supply curve between S2, S3 and S4 will only result in the price changing between the acceptable price band. If a supply shock causes the supply curve to shift to the right to S5 then the buffer stock authority will intervene and purchase the surplus Q4-Q5 thus preventing the market clearing by itself through a lowering of the equilibrium market price to P1. If the supply curve shifted to the left then the buffer stock authority would release stocks equal to Q1-Q2 on to the market thus preventing the price rising to P4.
In the case where the surplus is bought there are number of options that can happen to the stock
1.                   It can be stored
2.                   It can be destroyed
3.                   It can be sold to other countries
4.                   It can be given as overseas assistance.
Each option has a number of costs associated with each. Storage is expensive and involves opportunity costs of the storage facilities. Destroying surpluses especially if the surplus is a food is morally questionable in a world devastated by poverty and hunger. Selling to other countries at low prices or dumping can undermine domestic producers in the countries where the goods are sold. Giving the food as aid could, it is argued, lead to a dependency culture.






III.                The Critical Analysis Toward Government Intervention
The basic price policy of rice grains indicates that market regulator (goverment) protects the farmer. During harvesting season, farmers will be protected from the decreasing trends of basic price of rice grains significantly.  Indeed, in fact , farmer price is lower than market price. KOMPAS, Januari 12, 2001 wrote that the basic price of dried-rice grain in some producer regions in Central Java is Rp. 700 – 750/kg, though the governement decided for the basic price of dried-rice grain is Rp. 1,000 per kg . This phenomenon shows that the role of basic price as a safety net of the price decreasing due to of excess suplly cannot be functioned. 
This fact shows that there were some basic problems in rice-grain marketing in order government intervention does not effectively conducted. There are some factors driven in the ineffectiveness of the government policy.
1.       There is a trend that the policy maker applies laisssez faire, that strongly uses the strength of market mechanism in order the role of government should be ignored. This causes the price of rice grain will be freely and purely decided by the market strength. One of the government policies which is market-oriented is lessening manure subsidy since 1987 (Irawan, 2001). Manure marketing, then, is also free in order all producers, importer and distributor are freely to import manure. This conditon makes the farmer in bad position. In this case, production process faces the increasing of production cost because of lessening of manure subsidy. On the contrary, the price of rice-grain decreases because the policy of basic price of rice grain is not effective.
If it is compared with the data on 1984, Indonesia is able to be self-sufficient in providing rice and getting an award from FAO. At that time (during Soeharto president era), it is strictly applied the protection policy toward the basic price of rice grain and manure subsidy and pesticide) and also for the supervision of market mechanism. It means that when the government intervention takes a high position, the condition of rice grain market is better than without government intervention.
2.       The application of import tariff zero percent in 1998. The policy was applied because of the pressure of economic crisis and the pressure from international organization (IMF) that pay more on free market mechanism. So that, this policy makes the farmer becomes so pity. However, during Gus Dur era (2000), the import tariff is backed to 30% and it can be able to increase farmer income.


3.       Farmer institution dan market agent on rice marketing are not able to yet to take the good position in free market mechanism. It is caused by the oligopsony structure of rice grain market, so that the farmer is in weak position and the price is determined by ’tengkulak’ or retailer. The international price is also unfair determined because the importers (such as USA) give over protection to their farmers. The former institution, BULOG, that fully under government control, nowadays, is dispersed. In the previous time (ca. 1984) BULOG proved its role in keeping the stability of rice market.  

IV.                Conclusion
Government intervention in economic activities is highly needed and does not become taboo. Indeed, whenever market (in modern context can be monetary market) increased and there were market agents which are identified and/or in financial lost, it is legally for the government to intervene in order to protect and recover losses of market agents.

Link:
http://www.ziddu.com/download/13227503/GovernmentInterventioninAgriculturalMarket_AE250.docx.html

Bibliography

Andi Irawan, 2001. Harga dasar gabah dan paradigma Laissez fair. Republika, Jakarta

Anonymous, 2009. Commodities Agreement,  http://www.bized.co.uk/ educators/16-19/economics/markets/ index.htm Last Update: January 23, 2009.

 Anonymous, 2009. Subsidi untuk Petani Padi Mencari Format yang Tepat ,  http://www.tunashijau.com  Last Update: January 23, 2009.





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0 Food Security


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FOOD SECURITY FROM SUFFICIENCY ASPECT

I. INTRODUCTION : PARADOX ON FOOD SECURITY

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0 Proceeding KIPI

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0 Proceeding OKTI (2)

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