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Welcome to Agri... Revolution

Personal Link for Agricultural Policy and Development Concern

Food Security

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FOOD SECURITY FROM SUFFICIENCY ASPECT

I. INTRODUCTION : PARADOX ON FOOD SECURITY


Food security is a paradox and as a new findings of modern world. The percentage of the initial food producer is higher than nowadays. In reverse, the food security in nowadays is safer than last time. This paradox can be clearly seen in developed countries, for example is in Great Britain. The farmer population in Great Britain in 1950 is 6% and gradually become lesser toward 2% in 2000. Based on FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) prediction, the number of farmer population in Great Britain will become less and less to 1% in 2010. In a simple sense, around 896.000 farmers will supply food at least for 60 millions people.
Indonesia, nowadays, has 90 millions farmers (100 times of Great Britain) or around 45% of the citizen ‘supply food’ for all citizens in Indonesia (around 230 millions people). The facts mentioned that West Nusa Tenggara (famous as an area of paddy supplier) and semi-arid area such as East Nusa Tenggara in first semester 2005 has been facing critical food security. It is proven by the great number of food and nutrient deficiency


2. DEFINITION OF FOOD SUCURITY FROM YEAR TO YEAR

Food security can be defined in many ways according to the context and  place. There are, at least, 200 definition of food security (see: FAO 2003 and Maxwell 1996) and also at least there are 450 indicators of food security (Hoddinot 1999).
The definition of food security as a new policy concept appeared firstly in 1974, when there was world food conference held (Sage, 2002). Maxwell (1996) has been tracing the change of definition of food security since 1974 until the 90s decade. The change has happened in global level, national, household level and individual. It has been from food perspective itself as food first perspective until livelihood perspective and from objective indicators to subjective perspective (Maxwell &Frankenberger, 1992)
Maxwell and Slater (2003) evaluate definition of food security from time to time and find that the discourse of food security has changed fast from supply and availability frame to the entitlements perspective. Since the beginning of 1980s, global food security has been dominated by food entitlements, risks, and vulnerability. Book entitled The Poverty & Famines by Amartya Sen (1981) has been assumed to be the pioneer of the perspective change od food security (Maxwell and Slater, 2003; Boudreau & Dilley, 2001)
Amartya Sen is acknowledged as a plaintiff to the incorrectness of Maltusians paradigm that often having argument that food insecurity and famine are just production and availability case. By conducting the factual case in India and Africa, Sen is able to show that food insecurity and famine often happen because of entitlements failures, indeed, there is over food production. Like a saying ‘rat is dead in a rice barn’. Another fact is the famine in West Nusa Tenggara. There are at least four elements of sustainable food security in family level (Maxwell, 1996). First, food availability that is defined as amount of calorie required for active and healthy life. Second, food access that is defined as production entitlements, food buying and exchange or food transfer. Third, security that is defined as the balancing of susceptible, risks, and social insurances. Fourth, time function when food security in chronic, transition and/or cycles. 
 

Formal definition of food security

The 1st World Food Conference 1974, UN 1975 : “ Food security is world food availability during all times…. for keeping sustainable food consuming … and balancing of production and price fluxtuation”

FAO 1992 : “Food security is a situation where all people in all times have adequate and safe food amount and enough nutrients for active and healthy life.”

World Bank 1996 : “Food security is an access for all people in all times for adequate food in pursuing active and healthy life.”

Oxfam 2001 : “Food security is a condition where all people in all times have an access and control in adequate and qualified food amount for their active and healthy life.
There are two meanings here, the availability in quantity and quality, and access (rights on food by buying, exchange and claim)

FIVIMS 2005 : “Food security is a condition when all people, physically, socially, and economically have an access for adequate and safe food and nutrient for fulfilling their consume (dietary needs) and food preferences for their active and healthy life,

Indonesia – Acts No 7/1996 : “Food security is a condition where there is food availability for household that is measured by food sufficient, either in quantity or quality and there is safety guarantee, good distribution and willingness to buy.

3. Food security and Food sufficiency

Food security requires adequate food availability for all people and willingness to buy from the household in preparing its dietary needs for day to day. Khudori (2005) explains that the famine that happened during over food production is caused by the incorrectness in defining food security. Actually, food security is not only determined by over food availability, but also the availability of food for all people and the willingness of the people to buy, either in case of quantity, quality and safety. Food sufficiency access determines more in food security than in food availability. So that, food security system can be said in stable if it is able to guarantee that all people in all time are able to provide their enough food according to nutrient norm for active and healthy life.   
From this definition, we can assume that food security concept is related to the two terms. First is the adequate food availability and second is increasing people welfare, specially the poor. The first term is measured by the degree of food productivity in providing food and the second term is measured by the degree of the poor in fulfilling their dietary needs for their good life.
The example of the food security implementation in Indonesia is the government published the Act No. 7/1996 for food security and one of the international agreement is Millennium development goals 1990 – 2015. In measuring food security, we have to concern on the wider food concept, includes food and drinks of farm, cattle, and fish product either as primary product or secondary product. From the previous definition, the degree of national food sufficiency for consumption is measured in energy and protein unit.
For the example : in 2003 the measurement is 3076 kcal/capita/day and 76.54 grams protein/capita/day. This number is over the standard of energy and protein sufficiency that is recommended in National Widyakarya on Food and Nutrient VII in 2000 that was recommended 2500 kcal/capita/day and 55 grams protein/capita/day. Even, in macro, food availability was over the standard of energy and protein sufficiency, in National level, the sufficiency does not guarantee on consumption sufficiency in household and individual level. The average degree of consumption per capita per day of Indonesian people in 2003 is 1989 kcal or 90.04% from sufficiency standard.



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